The American Psychological Association recently released an update to the widely used APA writing, formatting and citation style, the APA Seventh Edition. Improving on the 6th edition, the APA 7 changes leverage academic best practices to introduce various changes.
APA 7 Changes: General Setup
APA 7 has different title page requirements for student papers. This title page does not require a running head and has a different set of information to include. See APA Style: Student Title Page Guide.
- Titles of papers are now bolded, with a blank line before the author’s name.
- There is no font requirement provided that the font is legible and consistent.
- The heading for the References list is now bolded.
- There are now guidelines for annotated bibliographies.
APA 7 Cover Page
The header of the title no longer has the “Running head:”. Leave the header empty and only indicate the page number.
The second page (Abstract page) has the header, which is the title of the document, in uppercase, as it was in the 6th version.
Student’s title consists of Title of the work, author’s name, institutional affiliation, course number and name, instructor name, and assignment due date. All the information is centered.
APA 7: In-Text Citations
APA has simplified in-text citations regarding multiple authors. If there are one or two authors, list their names:
(Smith, 2019); (Smith & Jones, 2019)
For three or more authors, list only the first author’s name and then et al.
(Smith et al., 2019)
APA 7: Formatting Author Names
In the opposite direction, APA now requires listing up to 20 authors for a source in the references list. This is a change from 8 in the 6th edition. For works with more than 20 authors, list the first 19, insert an ellipsis point, and then list the last author’s name.
Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. … Zhang, Z. Z. (Date). Title. Source.
APA 7 Changes: Books
For books, no longer list the publication location.
George, M. W. (2008). The elements of library research: What every student needs to know. Princeton University Press.
If a book has a DOI assigned to it, add it to the end of the reference.
Samanez-Larkin, G. R. (Ed.). (2019). The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000
eBooks should be cited exactly as print books. Do not include a database.
Keating, D. P. (Ed.). (2010). Nature and nurture in early child development. Cambridge University Press.
Sacred texts should now be included in the references list (the 6th edition only required an in-text citation).
The Bhagavad Gita. (E. Easwaran, Trans.; 2nd ed.). (2007). The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
APA 7 Changes: Journal Articles
Always include the issue number. Previously if the issues were paginated continuously you did not need to include it. The formatting of the DOI should now follow the format https://doi.org/XXXXXX
Zhao, W., Garcia-Oscos, F., Dinh, D., & Roberts, T. F. (2019). Inception of memories that guide vocal learning in the songbird. Science, 366(6461), 83–89. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw4226
If a journal article does not have a DOI, you may end the citation after the page numbers. There is no longer a requirement to include the URL of the journal’s homepage. However, if an article is open access, you may choose to link directly to the article’s full text.
Kerlis, B. (2013). Sacred spaces in virtual places: Locating religion in the financial market. Journal for the Study of Religion, 26(1), 23–44. http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/jsr/v26n1/03.pdf
If an article has an article number, use that in place of the page numbers
Derry, K. (2018). Myth and monstrosity: Teaching indigenous films. Journal of Religion & Film, 22(3), Article 7. https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2013&context=jrf
You may use a shortened DOI if desired.
Grasset, L., Glymour, M. M., Elfassy, T., Swift, S. L., Yaffe, K., Singh-Manoux, A., &emp; Al Hazzouri, A. Z. (2019). Relation between 20-year income volatility and brain health in midlife: The CARDIA study. Neurology. http://doi.org/dchq
APA 7: Magazine/Newspaper Articles
Include a URL if it will take the reader to the full text without logging in. The article title is formatted regularly, and the newspaper or magazine title is italicized.
Gibson, J. (2019, October 9). SF College zoo works to become more inclusive. The Gainesville Sun. https://www.gainesville.com/news/20191009/sf-college-zoo-works-to-become-more-inclusive
If a magazine or news site does not have an associated daily/weekly publication, use the guidelines for a webpage. Examples include CNN and the Huffington Post.
APA 7 Changes: Database Content
If a library database contains its own, proprietary information that cannot be retrieved elsewhere (like Cochrane, A to Z the World, and CQ Researcher), include the name of the database and a permalink in the reference.
Ornes, S. (2019, September 20). Extreme weather. CQ Researcher. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre201909200
APA 7: Webpages
Omit the words ‘Retrieved from’ before the URL. Include the name of the website unless it is the same as the author. Italicize the name of the webpage.
Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010, February 1). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp
You may use a URL shortener like tinyurl or bit.ly if you wish.
Santa Fe College. (n.d.). Enrollment by program of study. http://bit.ly/3141NHN
APA 7: Class Materials
APA now clarifies that if the audience for the paper being written can access materials that may be in an LMS or intranet, these can be included in the references list. Previously, these were considered non-retrievable sources and were to be cited as personal communication.
Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login
APA 7 Changes: Annotated Bibliographies
APA now has guidelines for an annotated bibliography. Annotations will be a new paragraph, indented 0.5″ from the left.
Delmas, P. M. (2017). Using VoiceThread to create community in online learning. TechTrends, 61, 595–602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-017-0195-z
This study investigated how VoiceThread could impact online student persistence. It used the Community of Inquiry framework as a guidepost for applying the technology, most specifically by leveraging social presence. The study sought to answer the question “does VoiceThread help create community for online learners?” Researchers surveyed 39 participants in master’s and doctoral programs that were either fully online or blended. Based on the data, the researchers concluded that VoiceThread, as perceived by students who have used it, can promote social presence in online learning communities by making students feel more connected to other students and the instructor. Three positive themes for VoiceThread related to student to student interaction included hearing a voice, hearing voice inflection versus text, and learning about peers’ professional/educational experience. While positive trends were highlighted succinctly, there was little discussion of negative trends, which challenged validity, and a small sample size (N=39) makes it difficult to generalize.
Visit Purdue OWL for more information about APA 7th edition.