Infection control and standard precautions among healthcare professionals


Infection control measures among healthcare providers play a key role in reducing the spread of the communicable diseases. Further, the failure to adhere to set infection control mechanisms has contributed to the spread of illnesses among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. This study offers an assessment of infection control and standard precautions among healthcare professionals.



A quantitative research approach was utilized to assess the healthcare providers’ knowledge on infection control and their adherence to the standard precautions. Descriptive and cross-sectional study designs were employed for healthcare workers from a tertiary hospital in *****. The standardized tool for this study comprises two main domains; the attitude and knowledge of healthcare workers on Infection Control (IC) and Standard Precaution (SPs). The knowledge, in particular, consist of five subdomains (risk management, hands hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharps disposal and sharp injuries, and condition of the healthcare provider).



Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to healthcare professionals equally. Only 200 were valid for statistical analysis. Overall results indicated a satisfactory level of both knowledge and attitude towards infection control standards. On a five point likert scale, the study indicated that healthcare workers have a good attitude towards the adherence to the standard practice (m=4.58). Moreover, a three point likert scale showed a high overall knowledge m=2.73) with RM (m=2.80), HH (m=2.85), PPE (m=2.81), SD and SI (m=2.48) and PC (m=2.73).



The results indicate that healthcare professionals’ attitude and knowledge of infection control have a significant impact on complying with required standard procedures. In particular, wearing protective equipment, ensuring hand hygiene, safe disposal of sharps, and dealing with sharp injuries play a significant role in general compliance.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Declaration i
Dedication ii
Acknowledgments iii
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
List of Acronyms x
Chapter One: Introduction 11
1.1 Background 11
Need for Standard Precautions (SPs) 11
Role of infection control measures 12
Risk of HCWs exposure 14
Preventing cases of occupational exposure 15
1.2 Statement of the Problem 17
1.3 Statement of the Purpose 18
1.4 Aims and Objectives of study 18
1.5 Research Questions 18
1.6 Definition of Variables and other terms 19
Knowledge 19
Practice 19
Standard precautions 19
Occupational exposure 20
Blood-borne infections 20
1.7 Conceptual Framework 20
Chapter Two: Literature Review 22
2.1 Introduction 22
2.1.1 Elements of the standard precautions 24
2.2 Knowledge of Standard Precautions 27
2.2.1 Definition of knowledge 27
2.2.2 Isolation Precautions in Hospitals 28
2.2.3 Adherence to standard precautions 29
2.3 Issues in adhering with Standard Precautions 34
2.3.1 Challenges of adhering to the standards precautions 34
2.3.2 Reasons for non-compliance 34
2.4 Cognitive and Affective Factors 36
2.5 Psychological Concepts and adherence with Standard Precautions 37
2.6 Behavioral Intentions in Choice and uncertainty Situations 37
2.7 Judgment under Conditions of Uncertainty 38
2.8 Gap of Knowledge 39
2.9 Summary 40
Chapter Three: Methodology 42
3.1 Study Design 42
3.2 Study Setting 43
3.3 Study Subjects 44
3.4 Data Source and Study Sample 44
3.5 Data Collection tools 44
3.6 Study Variables 45
3.7 Pilot Study 45
3.8 Data Collection 47
3.9 Statistical Analysis 48
3.10 Ethical Consideration 48
3.11 Summary 49
4.1 Introduction 50
4.2 Data collection and respondents demographic characteristics 50
4.2.1 Gender and nationality classification of the respondents 51
4.2.1 Respondents data on their profession 51
4.2.3 Data on respondents’ station of activity 52
4.2.4 Data on participants’ station of activity and their professional role 53
4.2.6 Years of experience of the respondents 54
4.2.7 Respondents’ years of experience in the station of activity 55
4.2.8. Respondents’ observation to Risk Management 56
4.2.9. Respondent’s observation to hand hygiene 56
4.2.10 Respondent’s observation to use of PPE 57
4.2.11 Respondent’s observation to handling of sharps 57
4.2.12 Respondent’s observation to worker’s condition 58
4.2.13 Knowledge overall 58
4.2.14 Attitude overall 59
4.2.15 Knowledge and attitude vs. Station of Activity 59
4.2.16 Knowledge and Attitude vs. Professional Role 61
4.2.17 Knowledge and Attitude vs. years of experience 62
4.2.18 Summary of the analysis 63
5.1 Introduction 66
5.2 Overview of the study 66
5.3 Discussion 68
5.4 Conclusion and Recommendation 73
References 76
Appendix A: Ethical Approval 80
Appendix B: Approved Data Collection Form 80
Appendix C: Approved Informed Consent Form 80


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